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You know Lucy? Meet Ida.Who is Ida?
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Mar 3 15 10:16 AM
stickiness of a termite’s feces and other bodily excretions lend
structure and coherence to the soil, which also prevents erosion.
Bacteria in the termite’s gut are avid nitrogen fixaters, able to
extract the vital element from the air and convert it into a usable sort
of fertilizer, benefiting the termite host and the vast underground
' “Over all, termites are extremely good for the health of the soil” on which everything else depends... '
May 7 15 8:35 AM
these genes were many that build special compartments inside eukaryote
cells. Inside these compartments, called lysosomes, eukaryote cells can
destroy defective proteins.
eukaryotes also share a cellular skeleton that they constantly build
and tear down to change their shape. Dr. Ettema and his colleagues found
many genes in Lokiarchaeum that encode the proteins required to build
possible that Lokiarchaeum use their skeleton to crawl over surfaces as
protozoans do. Lokiarchaeum’s genes also suggest that it can swallow up
molecules or microbes as eukaryotes do.
in all, Lokiarchaeum was much more complex than other archaea and
bacteria, although not as complex as true eukaryotes. The new study
indicates that they lacked a nucleus and mitochondria.
But Dr. Ettema’s discovery illuminates how a Lokiarchaeum-like ancestor could have evolved into the first full-blown eukaryotes.
Once the ancestors of eukaryotes evolved a complex skeleton, the next major step may have been the origin of mitochondria.
have long known that mitochondria evolved from bacteria. They contain
their own DNA, which is more like that of free-living bacteria than the
genes in the cell’s nucleus.
number of researchers have proposed that the ancestors of eukaryotes
swallowed up free-living bacteria. The bacteria became mitochondria,
providing fuel for their host cell.
Lokiarchaeum, with its potential to graze for microbes, is precisely the sort of microbe required in this scenario.
May 7 15 6:53 PM
16 April 2015 by Veronique Greenwood
Most of us can distinguish a million or more hues. A winding
evolutionary path led to this amazing ability – and perhaps to our
explosion of brainpower
Hiding in plain sight
If you found yourself bamboozled by the picture of the blue and black (or was it white and gold?) dress that took the internet by storm earlier this year, you can comfort yourself that at least part of the story is that your brain is so very complex.The white-gold effect comes about because the brain attributes the brightness of the image to the garment (which, as is clear from the picture above, was sold as blue-black), rather than to the light pouring onto it. This unconscious ability to compensate for an object's surroundings and the quality of the light is ancient – certainly older than primates – but there's more to it than that.Expectation, for instance, plays a role in what we perceive. Some people may have thought the dress was a wedding dress, helping to tip the balance towards white; others may have read that it was blue, pushing things the other way. Jay Neitz of the University of Washington in Seattle sees it as white, but is nevertheless also aware of the blueness coming from the image. For him, the variation in perception illustrates the rare subtlety of the interplay between our eyes and our brains. "I think that that's a primate thing. That's a big brain thing," he says.
TBD: I find it amazing that there are some women who may be able to see millions of colors others can't see. This is also a great example of how perception in general is a "big brain thing". It's also another one of 'those questions', by which I mean, when someone says "consciousness", I always want to ask: "consciousness of what?" Well, this is about consciousness of color.
Apr 18 17 11:34 AM
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